200, 239). sister upon the ground—but not for long, Wherefore I: “Master, see that thou arrive, At the next round, and let us descend the wall; III Canto; V Canto. (See Metamorphoses in the Loeb Classical Library edition, trans. Where it connects itself with the eighth bank, as soon as I had reached that stone, I sat. 117 ch’elli ha sofferta, e guardando sospira: 118 tal era ’l peccator levato poscia. 60 e dissi: «Va, ch’i’ son forte e ardito». IN that part of the youthful year wherein 25 E come quei ch’adopera ed estima, 24.124]). That one bank rises and the other sinks. 149 ond’ ei repente spezzerà la nebbia, 151 E detto l’ho perché doler ti debbia!». This hate-filled jab, inflicted not by a serpent but by a damned soul, anticipates the gruesome realization of the next canto, when we learn that the hateful serpents that attack the souls are fellow sinners. 270.). But because Malebolge tow’rds the mouth So that each Bianco shall thereby be smitten, And this I’ve said that it may give thee pain.”. Riassunto e commento del Canto XXXIII dell'Inferno di Dante, Letteratura italiana — could hardly make it up from spur to spur. The dust does not “return to the earth as it was: and the spirit .  Ovid is writing about essence, about being.  Dante himself does not treat the violation of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil by Adam and Eve as a fraudulent theft, but as a form of incontinence — what I call “epistemological incontinence” (hence the title of the Commento on Purgatorio 19, the canto that inaugurates Dante’s purgatorial treatment of the vices of incontinence).  The word forma has an important story to tell in the Commedia, coming into its own in that most metaphysical canticle, Paradiso. The mystery of Resurrection is rendered in a perverted and hellish mirror-image of itself. 125 sì come a mul ch’i’ fui; son Vanni Fucci Shorter was the ascent than on the other, While in the fifth bolgia the demons were God’s “ministers”, here the sinners are both ministers and recipients of God’s justice. And with impetuous and bitter tempest, Over Campo Picen shall be the battle; 77 se non lo far; ché la dimanda onesta To explore further the precise Ovidian intertextuality of this and other canti, see, the double helix of the Virgilio-narrative: the affective strand interwoven with the intellective strand. The core issues of identity and essence that inform Dante’s Ovidian metamorphoses are posed in highly visible fashion in the story of Peleus and Thetis. 132 e di trista vergogna si dipinse; 133 poi disse: «Più mi duol che tu m’hai colto If with its heavy body it sink not. Infatti, si lasciano scivolare lungo la parete rocciosa (“doccia”): Virgilio prende sulle braccia l’allievo e lo deposita a terra appena giunti nell’angusta sesta bolgia, dove quei padroni dell’inferno non possono giungere, in quanto Dio ha dato ad ogni gruppo di custodi un territorio preciso oltre il quale è loro vietato porre piede o ala. Tuttavia, qua e là Dante sembra afferrarci con un atto di intimità, rapido, attraverso particolari che ce lo rendono più umano e vicino: “Già mi sentia tutti arricciar li peli/ de la paura” (v. 19-20); “portandosene me sovra ‘l suo petto, /come suo figlio, non come compagno” (v. 50-51). bewildered by the heavy anguish he  Inferno 24 begins with an erudite simile devoted to the villanello (the farmer or peasant): first chagrined by the unexpected sight of snow, the villanello is then relieved when he realizes that the snow is frost, and that consequently he will be able to take his sheep to pasture. Il Bertoni acutamente definisce questo “il canto della stanchezza e della malinconia”, per cui il terrore “cede il posto a un senso di scoramento e di pena”. Divina commedia, Canto 33 dell'Inferno: riassunto e commento. And ask what crime has thrust him here below, 40 che l’una costa surge e l’altra scende; 84 che la memoria il sangue ancor mi scipa. Speaking I went, not to appear exhausted; Dante tells us that the evil pestilences he saw here find no match in the Libyan desert (described in the Pharsalia by Lucan, whose Latin names for various serpents Dante here repeats), nor can such an evil writhing mass be found in Ethiopia, or in the Arabian desert:  The classical references to Lucan prepare for the remarkable poetic challenges of Inferno 25.94-102, where Dante will tell of metamorphoses that, he boasts, outdo those of both Ovid and Lucan. Thus, verse 13 — “veggendo ’l mondo aver cangiata faccia” (seeing the world to have changed its face [Inf. So low am I put down because I robbed 62 ch’era ronchioso, stretto e malagevole, I cannot speak for him, but I should surely, have been defeated. They had their hands with serpents bound behind them; When I was up, that I could go no farther, away, and ask what sin has thrust him here; 75 così giù veggio e neente affiguro». 98 s’avventò un serpente che ’l trafisse  This infernal Resurrection is followed by a dialogue with the unhappily resurrected soul, who turns out to be Vanni Fucci of Pistoia. in so few hours, and he takes his staff  Let me say explicitly that the spectacular nature of the contrapasso in this bolgia is disproportionate to the sin in question, and, to my mind, no amount of investigation will eliminate this disproportion. For if Chelydri, Jaculi, and Pharae Nay, I sat down upon my first arrival. Wholly bewildered by the mighty anguish He I know not, but I had been dead beat. Il fatto, completamente nuovo, che in due si governasse la città, era stato fatto per sedare gli odi fra guelfi e ghibellini, essendo i due capi uno guelfo e uno ghibellino. Whereat a voice from the next moat came forth, Adesso ci viene a mano “prendere-prese-prende” dai versi 37-40, e non possiamo fare a meno di citare il Tommaseo, dal “Dizionario dei sinonimi della lingua italiana”, in cui - con il coraggio che richiede una critica al Divino Poeta- osserva: “Apriamo la Commedia di Dante; ed eccoti nel primo canto via ripetuto ben quattro volte… e paura ben cinque volte… Oh gran padre Alighieri, non sapevate voi dunque che la nostra lingua bellissima aveva pure e strada e sentiero, e altre voci significanti a un bel circa il medesimo, che potevano fiorire il vostro stile di variata eleganza?”Evidentemente ha ragione chi parla non di perfezione linguistica ed eleganza sintattica, ma di energia vitale che fa grandi le cose del pensiero e della bellezza!Anche in questo canto (versi 32-34-36) Dante si prova con l’endecasillabo sdrucciolo e poi con il tronco (versi 143-145-147): se alcune parole sono ripetute senza sinonimi, la tecnica dell’intelaiatura metrica è la più varia e complessa, e non solo in confronto ai contemporanei del Sommo Poeta.Torniamo alla descrizione che Dante fa di tali dannati. Not only are we forced to revisualize the episode of canto 1, but also to conjure up many another sweet glance that the narrative has not seen fit to mention. 126 bestia, e Pistoia mi fu degna tana».  Virgilio’s retroactive “piglio / dolce” is part of a subtle strategy of counterbalancing that dictates the moves in Dante’s Virgilio-narrative. 24.151]). is doing it,” he said. E' anche il canto della legge del contrappasso…, Letteratura italiana - Dante Alighieri — but turned his mind and face, intent, toward me; Equivocal rhymes feature rhyme-words that are the same in appearance but are not the same in substance, for the words have different meanings. into the human experience par excellence. Dante è chiaro nel puntare il suo arco: metafore, paragoni, rimandi, analogie etc. 14 in poco d’ora, e prende suo vincastro, And when he on the ground was thus destroyed, Aldo Onorati è autore tradotto in molte lingue nel mondo.Tra i suoi libri più conosciuti: La saga degli ominidi (VII ed. And—there!—a serpent sprang with force at one Letteratura italiana - Dante Alighieri — Riassunto e commento del Canto XXXIII dell'Inferno di Dante . 144 poi Fiorenza rinova gente e modi. As Capaneus says. 21 dolce ch’io vidi prima a piè del monte. These riveted upon their reins the tail  Dante has here used metamorphosis to present a fundamental Christian mystery, death followed by resurrection. Not well adapted to articulate words. 69 ma chi parlava ad ire parea mosso. For aye it seems that he provides beforehand, Il canto si apre con il famosissimo endecasillabo “la bocca sollevò dal fiero pasto quel peccator forbendola a’capelli” una scena macabra, il Conte Ugolino che divora il cranio dell’Arcivescovo Ruggieri e si pulisce le labbra con i suoi capelli, raccapricciante, ma evidenzia tutta la drammaticità della situazione, in queste poche parole si può già delineare il profilo del Conte, un uomo consumato dalla rabbia, ma allo stesso tempo contrito dal dolore. 32 ché noi a pena, ei lieve e io sospinto, Antecede la narrazione della sua storia con una premessa, parlerà per il solo scopo di far conoscere la sua storia, e portare infamia all’arcivescovo. 95 quelle ficcavan per le ren la coda There where the neck is knotted to the shoulders. 30 ma tenta pria s’è tal ch’ella ti reggia». In analogous fashion, he uses the circle of lust not to connect to any of the timeworn moralistic formulae regarding lust that were in circulation but to tackle a complex of issues at the heart of his poem and of his life-long meditation: the issues of reading, authorship, reception, and — most cogently — responsibility and free will. Then said: “It pains me more that thou hast caught me 112 E qual è quel che cade, e non sa como, already at the summit of the bridge unto God who gave it” (Ecclesiastes 12:7). 138 ladro a la sagrestia d’i belli arredi. The husbandman, whose forage faileth him, 85 Più non si vanti Libia con sua rena; etc. The Sun his locks beneath Aquarius tempers, Thus, in two lines Dante inscribes a new thread of affectivity into the texture of the Inferno, casting a long sweet light all the way back to canto 1. Canto 3 illustrates Contrapasso in a subtle way, as the individuals punished have not “sinned”, but are considered neutral; have been undecided throughout life, including forming a relationship with God. and instantly returned to what it was: just so, it is asserted by great sages, 146 ch’è di torbidi nuvoli involuto; He does this by specifying in Inferno 25 that the centaur Cacus, housed in this bolgia, is not with his fellow Centaurs (they inhabit and guard the first ring of the circle of violence, in Inferno 12) — “non va co’ suoi fratei per un cammino” (he does not ride the same road as his brothers [Inf. She will re-form. or under covers cannot come to fame; and he who spends his life without renown After Dante-narrator has undermined Virgilio in the intellective domain, he then takes care to enhance him in the affective domain. This is a sequence that begins in Inferno 21.106, and that will not be completed until the travelers have finished climbing the ruina and look down into the seventh bolgia, beginning in verse 65 of Inferno 24. . If thou shalt e’er be out of the dark places. 5 l’imagine di sua sorella bianca, The static metamorphoses that we saw in Inferno 13 have become dynamic in Inferno 24. This illustration tracks Dante and Virgilio’s movement from the sixth to the seventh bolgia, with the hypocrites ringing the outer part of the image, and the thieves in their pits of coiling snakes visible in the center of the seventh bolgia. Amid this misery where thou seest me, That was no path for those with cloaks of lead, from Tuscany into this savage maw. he said: “I suffer more because you’ve caught me  Dante’s goal is to have Virgilio “function as a paradox at the heart of the poem” (Dante’s Poets, pp. Moreover, this information is novel, since in it Dante-poet tells us that Virgilio’s demeanor was “sweet” when the pilgrim first met his guide, at the foot of the mountain in Inferno 1: “a piè del monte” (Inf. La congregazione dei frati Gaudenti (meglio “cavalieri di Maria Vergine Gloriosa”) fu fondata nel 1260 e approvata da Urbano VI. 92 corrëan genti nude e spaventate, He is making the case that Thetis’ being remains unchanged, unaltered, through all the changes of her shape, her “form”. In Inferno 24.20-21, Dante-poet effectively revises what he told us originally about Virgilio’s demeanor, rewriting the formal teacher/student relationship of Inferno 1 into the tender filial/parental dynamic that we saw in Inferno 23. 120 che cotai colpi per vendetta croscia! Saying: “To that one grapple afterwards, “Now it behoves thee thus to put off sloth,” 108 quando al cinquecentesimo anno appressa; 109 erba né biado in sua vita non pasce, The suggestion put forward by Robert Hollander, whereby this bolgia recalls the “the ‘primal scene’ of thievery in Eden” (Hollander commentary, Inferno 24, at verses 91-96, accessed through http://dantelab.dartmouth.edu), certainly raises the status of the theft, as well as predicting the presence of serpents, but ultimately does not offer a sufficient hermeneutic lens for consideration of this bolgia. This is accomplished rhetorically by the insinuation of affective language into the narrative at the moments of greatest intellective stress. “Go on, for I am strong and confident.”. A longer ladder still is to be climbed; But since Malebolge the mist, and every White be struck by it. In the immediate aftermath of this narrative nadir in Virgilio’s authority, what does the narrator do? until that vapor, vigorous, shall crack  The seventh bolgia features metamorphoses, changes of shape that are violently inflicted by serpents upon sinners. By force of demons who to earth down drag him, 74 ché, com’ i’ odo quinci e non intendo, Letteratura italiana - Dante Alighieri — Analisi del canto 26 dell'Inferno e la pena del contrappasso 52 E però leva sù; vinci l’ambascia When it shall suddenly rend the mist asunder, Like the villanello, relieved that what he thought was snow is but frost, Dante-pilgrim is relieved when Virgilio’s demeanor changes from angry to kindly: from “turbato un poco d’ira nel sembiante” (somewhat disturbed, with anger in his eyes [Inf. Ought to be followed by the deed in silence.”. Thus, at the end of Inferno 23, after Catalano has informed Vergil that devils are liars, Vergil walks off with great strides in evident anger, and the author concludes the canto as follows: “ond’ io da li ’ncarcati mi parti’ / dietro a le poste de le care piante” (so I departed from those burdened spirits, / while following the prints of his dear feet [Inf. Such vestige leaveth of himself on earth. 119 Oh potenza di Dio, quant’ è severa, or by some other hindrance that binds man—. (Dante’s Poets, p. 239). From Val di Magra, Mars will draw a vapor cenchres with amphisbaena, pareae. Miller). 46 «Omai convien che tu così ti spoltre», And therefore raise thee up, o’ercome the anguish Relazione critica XXXIII° Canto dell'Inferno. 37 Ma perché Malebolge inver’ la porta Dante and Virgilio speak with Vanni Fucci, who prophesies the political fall of Dante’s White Guelphs. 86 ché se chelidri, iaculi e faree E’er showed she with all Ethiopia, What time the hoar-frost copies on the ground Let Libya boast no longer with her sand; have one bank high and have the other short; (See Sapegno edition and commentary, Inferno [Firenze: La Nuova Italia, 1968], p. O how severe it is, for as I hear and cannot understand, 139 e falsamente già fu apposto altrui. The Guide thereafter asked him who he was; I had bent downward, but my living eyes Therefore, in specifying that Virgilio’s “piglio / dolce” (where the enjambment puts dolce into relief) is first seen “a piè del monte”, Dante is retrospectively rewriting the original meeting of Inferno 1, instituting an affective tie which at the time was not there. 122 per ch’ei rispuose: «Io piovvi di Toscana, 115 quando si leva, che ’ntorno si mira the phoenix dies and then is born again; lifelong it never feeds on grass or grain, 83 di serpenti, e di sì diversa mena ‘Tis not enough from these to have departed; New York, NY: Columbia University Libraries, Metamorphosis (Ovid).” Commento Baroliniano, Digital Dante. and, as he fell, completely turned to ashes; and when he lay, undone, upon the ground, And yet, dolce was by no means an adjective used to describe the demeanor or deportment of the dignified Virgilio back in Inferno 1. who stood upon our shore, transfixing him  Vanni Fucci — a Black Guelph, like the other thieves in this bolgia — then gives vent to a political prophecy about the fall of the White Guelphs (Dante, we recall, is a White Guelph). The fraudulence of these thieves mark them as different from the violent robbers plunged into the river of blood in Inferno 12. equipped with breath than I had been before: What Thetis was before, at the beginning — “quod fuit ante” — is what she will be again, once she has re-formed, returned to her original form. as smoke bequeaths to air or foam to water. 3 e già le notti al mezzo dì sen vanno. 147 e con tempesta impetüosa e agra. 148 sovra Campo Picen fia combattuto; 47 disse ’l maestro; «ché, seggendo in piuma, Whence he replied: “I rained from Tuscany “A just request Justice of God ! Inferno: gironi e struttura | Canto 1: analisi, parafrasi, figure retoriche | Canto 2: parafrasi, commento e figure retoriche | Canto 3: parafrasi, commento e figure retoriche | Canto 5: parafrasi, commento e figure retoriche del canto di Paolo e Francesca |. Therefore, I try to avoid “form” as an indicator of the external, and use “shape” instead. Without the hope of hole or heliotrope. As a technical term indicating the ruins incurred by the coming of Christ, ruina here underscores the lengthy narrative sequence of the broken bridges and the issue of Hell’s status, its fundamental impotence. Behoved it that in falling he became. Dante takes care to clarify the distinction between these thieves and the earlier robbers (as he does not, for instance, clarify the distinction between the prodigals in the fourth circle and the wastrels in the second rung of the seventh circle). And lo ! and now the moat was plain enough to me; and there within I saw a dreadful swarm  The new life and resurrection that the Christian soul finds in Christ is here a degraded pantomime in which the soul is resurrected only to die again. Virgilio partì a grandi passi e Dante gli tenne dietro. which turbid clouds will try to wrap; the clash ran people who were naked, terrified, The ashes drew together, and of themselves Dante here engages the dialectical principles of the double helix narrative structure that he is creating, whereby an affective narrative strand is interwoven with an intellective narrative strand. a tempest, fought upon Campo Piceno,  In this way, Dante uses the fiction of his underworld to make his taxonomic point. 135 che quando fui de l’altra vita tolto. 12 poi riede, e la speranza ringavagna. Commento al canto XXXIII dell'inferno della Divina commedia di Dante Alighieri, Letteratura italiana - Dante Alighieri —  For Ovid in the Metamorphoses, as for Dante in this bolgia, violence — often sexual violence — is frequently the precursor and instigator of shape-changing. And now the nights draw near to half the day. then Florence will renew her men and manners. the body’s heaviness does not deter it. 59 meglio di lena ch’i’ non mi senta,  We remember that in Inferno 13 the human shape is not present at all: the souls of the suicides are “embodied” as trees. So too Ovid’s Metamorphoses come into their own in Paradiso; it is in the third canticle that Ovid supplants Vergil as the classical poet with whom Dante is most engaged. 143 Pistoia in pria d’i Neri si dimagra; Precisely at this moment of intellectual defeat, Dante tightens the affective screws; if Vergil is to function as a paradox at the heart of the poem, the reader must not be allowed easily to dismiss him, but instead must be forced, with the pilgrim, into the dilemma of loving and respecting that which is fallible, corruptible, and transitory — i.e. As a concept that probes the implications of a being that changes its shape, metamorphosis poses such questions as:  Ovid’s metamorphoses are traditionally treated by commentators as no more than occasions for “bel narrare” or “beautiful story-telling” (Chiavacci Leonardi, ed., Inferno [Milan: Mondadori, 2005], p. 732). Well at the ruin, and laid hold of me. And had it not been, that upon that precinct 80 dove s’aggiugne con l’ottava ripa, with no hope of a hole or heliotrope. Essi stanno di traverso, per cui non è possibile evitarli. In little time, and takes his shepherd’s crook, the slope was shorter than the bank before, I peccatori sono qui puniti con atroci sofferenze, conficcati fino al collo nel ghiaccio scontano la pena eterna fino al giorno del giudizio; il contrappasso è un vortice di genialità e ingegno: come in vita hanno tramato contro il prossimo raggelando il loro animo privandolo del calore della carità, così all’inferno saranno raggelati nel ghiaccio cocito.Le due figure principali in questo canto sono il Conte Ugolino della Gherardesca, uomo potentissimo a Pisa, accusato di avere consegnato a Lucca ed a Firenze alcuni castelli pisani, fu fatto prigioniero dai Ghibellini e fu lascito morire di fame insieme a due figli e due nipoti. In verse 24 Dante uses the term “ruina” as a descriptor of the ruined landscape created by that broken bridge: “riguardando prima / ben la ruina (first carefully examining the ruin [Inf. 58 Leva’mi allor, mostrandomi fornito She, however, changes shape to elude him. Press, 1968].) the sacristy of its fair ornaments. A longer stairway it behoves thee mount;  Inferno 24 is the first of two canti that treat the seventh bolgia, home of the fraudulent thieves. Thine ears to my announcement ope and hear: Direttore editoriale per molti anni in Roma, tiene conferenze e seminari di studi su Dante, sulla letteratura Italiana e sulla tecnica del verso.Con la nostra casa editrice ha pubblicato, nel 2013, il romanzo Le tentazioni di Frate Amore, già in seconda ristampa. 113 per forza di demon ch’a terra il tira, suffered when taken from the other life. goes out again and gathers up new hope.  Finally, the villanello simile looks forward to the materia of the next bolgia, namely metamorphosis. who doesn’t know what can be done, and then for if she breeds chelydri, jaculi, for he and I—he, light; I, with support— For hardly we, he light, and I pushed upward, “Inferno  The discourse on the body takes lexical form in the many body-parts named in this bolgia, for instance in the following tercet’s description of the sexualized bondage inflicted on the sinners by their serpent-comrades:  There is an unsettling sexualized component to the way in which the serpents “thrust their head and tail right through the loins” in order to bind the sinners into knots. by demon’s force that drags him to the ground the dust of him collected by itself 9 biancheggiar tutta; ond’ ei si batte l’anca. 134 ne la miseria dove tu mi vedi, 28 d’un ronchione, avvisava un’altra scheggia I know not what it said, though o’er the back Pistoia first of Neri groweth meagre; (For a reading of the sonnet, see Dante’s Lyric Poetry: Poems of Youth and of the Vita Nuova, p. Rather, in a perversion of the biblical text, the dust rises over and over again. The result is that the sinner is incinerated, literally, turning to ash, only then to recompose into human form. She breeds, with Cenchri and with Ammhisbaena. 17 quand’ io li vidi sì turbar la fronte, if you can ever leave these lands of darkness. As though we might miss the connection to eating, the lesson continues (almost humorously) by making the point that the sweet fruit of this tree is such as to hurt the belly of the one who eats it:  Moreover, thievery in the treatment of Inferno 24-25 clearly has a civic dimension, given the apostrophes to Pistoia and Florence that frame the seventh bolgia and the Black Guelph Florentine families to which the thieves belong. had thrust their head and tail right through the loins, 104 la polver si raccolse per sé stessa 78 si de’ seguir con l’opera tacendo».
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